Benito Andrea Amilcare Mussolini (29 July 1883—28 April 1945) was an Italian statesman, soldier, journalist and revolutionary theorist who as leader of the National Fascist Party was Il Duce of Italy for almost two-decades, in his official role as Prime Minister and head-of-government under the king. He is credited as the father of fascism; a revolutionary nationalist and heroic worldview, seeking national rebirth; emerging primarily from a national syndicalist and Nietzschean milieu in the period following the First World War. Mussolini jointly held the post First Marshal of the Empire with the king, controlling the military, as well as leader of the MVSN. Many Italians regard Mussolini as a profound national hero.
Mussolini's governance was energetic and virile, gaining contemporary acclaim from across the spectrum. Compared to the decadent bourgeois liberalism which preceded it, the new government under the new system proved much more capable and successful at raising up the standard of the Italian nation with various domestic public works programs. Between the years 1924–1939, the fascists tamed the Pontine Marshes, improved job opportunities and public transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. He also founded the Italian Empire, aquiring colonies in Africa and territories previously belonging to Venice.
When a dark and concealed force, international in scope of operation, manipulated the plutocracies to begin the Second World War against the German Third Reich, Mussolini and Italy under his governance entered on the side of Germany, becoming one of the Axis powers. After Italy had been invaded Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism and arrested, however he was rescued during the Gran Sasso raid. Following this he led the government of the Italian Social Republic in the north. As the war came to a close, he tried to escape through Switzerland, but was murdered by communist traitors.